Today, science has known the order of 280 types of non-commercial, able to develop and live in a human body, the disease in different organs and tissues. The frequency of infection by a worm of a person depends on the climate and socio-economic conditions of specific territories (in underdeveloped countries, especially those that are located in a tropical setting and the subtropical zone, the level of parasitic infections is significantly greater than that in the states the most economically developed).
Methods of infection of a person worms
- The infection of the animals.
- Worms, spread from person to person.
- Diseases caused by parasites, perform one of the cycles of life on earth.
Factors that influence the manifestation helminths
- A form of penetration of the parasite in the body;
- The degree of adaptation of helminths in the human body;
- The density of a population of individuals who infest;
- The dwelling place of the worm. Some helminths in the different phases are, and translucent, and the fabric of the form. Planctônica and the development of a stage of worms usually cause more pronounced the pathological changes.
Worms in humans: symptoms
Helminthiasis is a disease for which there is a characteristic 2-phase current (acute, from two weeks up to two months) and chronic (several months to a few years).
The symptoms of the acute phase helminthiasis
The first signs of the disease may manifest itself at different periods (typically 2 to 3 weeks, when ascaris – after 2-3 days).
In the acute phase of parasitic infestation the most characteristic symptom is the allergic reaction. Often infected with worms people itching in the skin appear skin rash, averse to retidiviruuschem downstream, increasing the lymph nodes regional, you may experience generalized or local edema, muscle and joint pain. Also migration of larvae of the parasite can cause pains in the region of the chest, cough, attacks of shortness of breath, disorders of the chair, nausea and vomiting.
At the same time, the acute phase helminthiasis can be accompanied by more serious violations (one serious form of pneumonia, hepatitis, allergic myocarditis, hepatosplenomegaly (enlarged liver and spleen), meningoencephalitis).
In the blood increases the number of eosinophils and disturbed the normal quantitative relationship between protein factions.
Signs of chronic helminthiasis
The chronic stage, the symptoms depend on which body is the body "inhabited" by the parasites, as well as the important role that its size and the amount.
Thus, in the presence of parasites in the intestine isolated species, the disease can be asymptomatic (except in cases of infection is very large parasites). The characteristic signs in the chronic phase intestinal helminths are dyspeptic disorder. In children in the greatest measure expresses the pain that is caused. When a massive invasion, perhaps the development of intestinal obstruction mechanical jaundice and pancreatitis.
Consuming all that you need for your life, a substance of the organism, the host, helminths are the cause of digestive disorders, disorders of suction of vitamins, minerals, carbohydrates, proteins and fats. At the same time, waste products, worms and afflict the microbiota normal gut and reduces the immune resistance of the organism.
Types of worms infest within the human body
Pathogens helminths human are 2 types of worms round (ancilostomídeos) and smooth (tape worms).
The parasites, which are the cause of enterobiasis are small (up to 10 mm) thick abdominal worms, with gray-white coloration. This happens with food (through the mouth). The reason for this – dirty hands. The eggs of the parasite can be on the earth, wool from infected animals, and impure vegetables and fruit, and PR. however, the disease, the cases of auto-infection (especially in children), resulting from scratching itchy areas and the subsequent ingestion of eggs. The larva pinworms develops over the course of two weeks in the digestive tract. Becoming an adult an individual, the worm at the bottom of the departments of fine and superior departments of the colon.
Still in the larval stages of this parasite begins to harm the body of his master, building enzymes, irritant acting on the intestinal wall and cause the development of an inflammatory process. The adult parasites, PREasybeats or penetrate into the deeper layers of the intestinal mucosa, breaking its integrity, and in promoting the accession of secondary bacterial infection. In the case of PRomogenia the wall of the small intestine is possible, the development of peritonitis. Also, because of irritation of receptors of the intestine violated the motor and secretory function, the digestive tract, leading to the formation of gastroduodenitis, enteritis, and so on. In childhood long-term and current enterobiasis can cause nervous system disorders and delay in physical development.
Ascaris is a parasite fusiform form red-yellow, by getting into an adult capable of 40 cm (females) and 15-25 cm (males). Not having suction cups or other devices for fixing, ascaris is able to move the meeting to feed the masses. The eggs, outstanding female parasite, stand out, together with the faeces.
The infection occurs in the case of ingestion of eggs to mature along with the water or dirty vegetables and fruits, which have soil particles. After the penetration of eggs in the intestine of them will overcome the larvae. Then, infiltrating the intestinal wall, they reach the blood circulation of the heart, and from there enters the lungs. Through the lung alveoli larva roundworm by respiratory paths again penetrates into the oral cavity. After re-ingestion of the parasite reaches the small intestine, where it develops the adult of an individual. The worm lives for 12 months, more dies and stands out, together with the faeces. In the intestine, a host can live as one or several hundred individuals.
The genus meloidogyne
The genus meloidogyne, the causative agent of trichuriasis, is a parasite of white color, piggybacking onto the in the home department of the large intestine and extends to sizes of 4-5 cm. the parasite Feeds on blood and tissues of the mucosa rectal.
Eggs whipworm, drop down water on the walls of the intestine, to go outside, along with fecal masses. Its development occurs in the environment (ideal in the soil). Eggs with larvae of the parasite enter the body of food by means of, through dirty hands, water or unwashed vegetables and fruits.
Exciter trichinosis is a small round parasite that reaches 2 to 5 mm in length. The infection occurs when the usage is bad PRohrannogo meat. Penetrating in the intestine, the larva of the parasite for 3-4 days Matures to a state of Mature of an individual. The life expectancy of the worm is 40 days, after which the parasite dies. Penetrating the intestinal wall, the larvae penetrate into the bloodstream and sent to all organs of the human body, they are establishing themselves in the muscles. In this case, they are often surprised with the breathing and facial muscles, as well as the muscles-flexors members.
Ancylostoma and necator
These two parasites are similar to each other by biological characterized, as well as of human diseases. Worms, reaching a length of 10 mm to 15 mm, parasitic, 12-p. intestine. It should be noted that this is one of the most common, but, at the same time, quite rare for new pests. The larvae of the worms enter the human body through the skin of the curtains into contact with the contaminated soil. Later, entering the bloodstream, they, as well as the roundworm, migrate to the lungs, then through the bronchi, along with phlegm – to the digestive tract. Hookworm infests the intestine, PRcaviarplyayas the intestinal wall. The parasite, feeding exclusively on blood, PRokazyvaet penetrating the mucosal blood vessels, which injects there PRolivevitale component. Per day of an adult individual, on average, can absorb up to 0.05-0.35 ml of blood. Therefore, the most characteristic symptom of this helminthiasis is iron deficiency anemia, as well as the changing ratio of protein factions (disPRteinemia).
A large tapeworm
This is one of the major helminths, reaching a length of 10 to 20 meters. The disease, caused by a agreement with the parasite, called difillobotrioz. The development cycle of a worm starts with fresh water fish or crustaceans. In the human body, that is the end of a master of a wide têniaa, the larva drops along with the caviar or contaminated fish fillet. Reaching the small intestine, the parasite attaches to your wall and for 20-25 days grows up to Mature an individual.
Difillobotrioz flows in the midst of the failures of the functioning of the digestive system, and B12-deficit anemia.
A parasite called onpистonрхonз – is a flat worm that reaches a length of 7-20 mm. Larvae of the parasite begin to develop after being hit by eggs in fresh water (PRonглonтивших your snails). Then, they penetrate into the body of the fish (carp, carp, bream, roaches). The human infection occurs by the ingestion of food contaminated fish flesh, not of the past, enough to the heat treatment. Larva-liver Fluke of the small intestine, penetrates into the bile duct and into the gallbladder, fixing there, via two suction cups.
Beef and pork TSEptier
These, almost identical in its structure parasites reach a length of 5 to 6 metres. The infection occurs through the consumption of beef or pork, infected finns (one of the intermediate forms helminthiasis). Viable for the finns, presented in the form of whitish bubbles, and come in sizes of 0.5 cm, attached to the wall of the small intestine of man and 3 months become adult of an individual. Tape the parasite, comprised of over 2000 segments, continuously grows. In this case the end segments, which contain eggs, raise and auto-move in the colon the anal opening, and then crawl out of the anus, or stand out on the outside along with the stool. More symptoms characteristic of helminthiasis is the malfunction of the digestive system.
For this parasite the man is the master. The worm in the human body, such as the finns. The master end, Echinococcus – wolf, dog or cat. The infection occurs the food through contact with the animals and with the objects of the environment, where to eat eggs Echinococcus. After entering into the gut of them are developed oncospheres. From the intestine, they penetrate into the bloodstream and released throughout the body.
This parasite is on the grounds of one of the most dangerous helminthes, which, according to the severity of the similar occurrence with cirrhosis and liver cancer. The infection occurs in the penetration of eggs and larvae in the small intestine. There, the embryo exits the egg and penetrating the intestinal walls, enters the bloodstream. Forth, with a stream of blood, the parasite spreads through all the tissues and organs of the body. He then larvae start the development stage. Each camera contains the embryonic head of the parasite, PRonдonлжающегon develop gradually. Next tissue due to a malfunction of the blood vessels, exposed necrotic changes. Spreading in the vicinity of structures, the alveolar form fibrous sites with inclusions of Multicam bubbles. This state can last for several years, in connection with which it necessarily requires a surgical intervention.
Diagnosis of helminths
Diagnostic worm invasions includes the following activities:
- complete collection the anamnesis, to help figure out possible causes of infection;
- laboratory testing of stool, blood, content, 12p bowel, rectal and perianal mucus, muscle tissue, the sale of mucus, bile. To perform the analysis can be identified eggs, segments or fragments of parasites. However, the increase in the content of eosinophils in the blood is also a sign about the availability of helminthiasis.
- when the diagnosis of diseases caused by phases of development of the larvae or cloth of pests, are carried out serologic studies.
- to detect worms, affect the tissue of the liver, is assigned to ultrasonography, computed tomography and endoscopic research.
Worms in humans treatment
In the acute phase of an infection the patient is assigned to detoxication and desensitizing therapy. Severe disease of the plug summary of the health readings are used glucocorticoid.
As medications specific therapy given the nature of the pathogen are assigned special PRonтивonгельминтные chemotherapeutic agents.
In parallel to a sick person, it is recommended that the administration of drugs against the allergy and enterosorbents. The final phase of treatment includes the use of probiotics, which normalize the intestinal microflora.
It is also assigned special protects the diet (food must be easily digestible and contain a little fat).
In the period of the therapy against intestinal worms from the patient is required to obey personal hygiene. At the same time, many helmintíasex treatment must pass all of the family members and people who are contaminated in constant contact.