Helminthiasis people arise when swallowed one of the 300 species of parasites. Simultaneously, the patient can be the master of 1 to 5, a variety of worms. You need to know what types of intestinal worms in humans are common, how they look like, how the infection occurs.
Types of worms
The fear of contracting worms is that patients tend to consider that this is a worm capable of committing any deterioration. Helminths – the representatives of the invertebrates admitted, having extremely primitive construction. They can't exist outside of an organism in a host, as well as receive the nutrients and the conditions for the activities of animal husbandry.
You should enumerate which worm there is to the man. Diseases cause: round, smooth, and worms.
The most common are the following types of intestinal worms in humans:
- the roundworm;
- the worms;
Among all the worms and parasites in person, the most common are pinworms (or Enterobius vermicularis). Are small roundworms with a body translucent off-white color. Pinworms separately-floors, males reach 4-6 mm, female – 10 mm. Worms are common and cause enterobiasis. It is more common in children.
Pinworms are spread from person to person through ingestion of eggs or invasion through the anus. The life cycle of the helminth ova passes into the lumen of the intestine. In the process of transfer of the eggs and leave larvae and mature within an environment. Throughout the intestine of an individual mating, after which males die. The females placed by peristalsis to the rectum, and in the night hours to lay their eggs on the perianal. Then, they die, and sick, a person can detect on their clothes, or toilet paper. If you carefully consider how it looks like worms in humans, you can compare them with the small translucent worms.
The eggs are transferred to the environment, occurs where the spread of the disease among other people or re-auto-infection.
Note! Pinworms are in the clothing, objects of everyday life, the wool of animals, food products. The eggs outside of the human body retain their vitality up to 2-3 weeks.
The roundworm is a type of worms that are round. The individuals separately-floors. Live guinea-worm – red worm fusiform form. The body length of female is up to 40 cm, male – up to 20 cm. Thickness parasites – up to 6 mm. The dead parasites have a tint of whitish, translucent. If you consider photo worms Ascaris, it can be noted that females have the straight body, and the males are curved on one side.
Note! The pairing and the retention of eggs occurs in the lumen of the intestine. So, by night, an individual can leave up to 200 thousand eggs with thick shell. It protects the individual against the negative effects of the environment. The larvae mature in soil within 2-3 weeks. Development of individuals is possible only if enter in contact with the intestine of the host.
The infection by these parasites occurs in contact with the disease face, eating unclean vegetables, fruits, red or green. Movement by the fecal-oral route. Man – the main master of Ascaris lumbricoides (roundworm).
Swallowed invasive eggs worm found in the stomach, and then in 12 duodenal intestine. There, the parasites are all exterior facing, and damage to the mucous membrane of the body, to fall in small vessels of the digestive system. So worms are the portal of vienna and drainage of blood scattered by the internal organs: liver, heart, lungs. In the respiratory system, the worms climb up to the oral cavity and causing coughing. Move Ascaris internal organs – migration phase of the parasite.
In case of ingestion, with the saliva or cough of worms again if you are in the lumen of the digestive tract. This is the escherichia coli phase of the helminth ova.
Note! The entire life cycle of Ascaris lumbricoides (roundworm) takes about 60 to 70 days. The eggs of the helminth ova can persist in the soil, or even years.
The genus meloidogyne
This geohelminth is only found in human beings. The infection occurs when the use of the vegetable or fruit, and water, which contain eggs of the parasite.
Externally, the worm resembles a long hair thickened back. The size of the body of the parasite is up to 5 cm. These worms in the body of a person inhabiting the intestine and to delay up to 10,000 eggs per day. The life expectancy of the parasite, which is about 4 to 6 years of age.
The seed of whipworm comes out with the faeces to the environment, and Matures in the soil. Externally, the eggs resemble translucent barrels with caps on the poles. After infecting the man the genus meloidogyne is freed from the shell, in a few weeks, reaches sexual maturity.
The main masters of these parasites are dogs and cats.
You parasite there are male and female. They reach from 10 to 20 cm in length, body thickness up to 3 mm. Externally, these worms look like thin strand of an off-white color. His hope of life – 5-6 months.
The owner of a pet you can watch them in calais pet after defecating or planned degelmintizatsija. Live, the parasites have a slightly yellowish tint, and very fruitful. Each female within the main body of the master puts up to 150 thousand eggs per day. Eggs with thick rugged hem to fall in the environment, and to mature until the state invasive for 1-5 weeks.
The infection occurs when the contact to the soil, use of fruits, vegetables without a thorough washing. In group of risk people living in rural areas. Eggs of Toxocara fall in the human digestive tract. The larvae of the worms come out of the casing and inserted in the intestinal mucosa. The migration remember to move Ascaris.
Note! However, these types of worms in humans do not pass through a complete cycle of development, they are sent through the body with a stream of the blood and settle in the internal organs. Worms grows connective tissue capsule and you can very time to be in an inactive state. You can-if you suspect toxocariasis in children or adults, is extremely difficult. The infection from one person to another is impossible.
It is round worms that live in the muscle tissue and the intestinal lumen. They are the cause of death of the disease trichinosis.
Trichinella spiralis is endemic, with the trend towards natural foci in the forest arrays. This is related with the prevalence of the disease in certain species of animals. Trichinella separately-floors, its description is the following: sim animals 3-4 mm long, body of the end-to-end elongated, acute the main purpose.
The master of the parasite may be an animal or a man. The disease in humans occurs when the ingestion of infected meat containing the larvae of the worm (further – pork). The life cycle of Trichinella takes place within a host without exiting the environment for the maturation of the larvae:
- when ingested with food parasites quickly end the phase 3 development of the larvae;
- the adults mate in the lumen of the intestine, and then the males die;
- incubation of fertilized eggs and leaving the young of the species occurs in the body of females (egg-live birth);
- the female lays larvae on the wall of the intestine;
- the larvae with bleeding are dealt by the body of the person;
- survive only the parasites, trapped in tissue, with an intense the circulation of blood in the skeletal muscle;
- the larvae encircle the capsule and live in person for up to 20 years.
Trematodes (or flukes) are flat worms. It is known for more than 7000 species of these parasites, disease in humans called only 40 of them. Its location in the body of the people highlighted the following varieties worms-trematodes:
- cells of the blood flukes (schistosoma);
- intestinal worms;
- liver and worms;
- pancreatic worms;
- lung gills.
The most common worms is the Fasciola liver, Opisthorchis felineus, Schistosoma haematobium. The majority of species of trematodes are distributed in almost every part, only schistosoma inhabit mainly in the countries of Asia, Africa and South America.
For these worms typical development, with the change of different hosts and alternation of free-living room, and parasitic phases. The majority of them until the encounter with the man dwells in the bodies of molluscs, fish. To leave the body, middleware, master, the worms float freely in the water. Then, occurs the infestation of parasites from a large animal – cat, cattle. When schistosomiasis man becomes the master of the helminth ova in the penetration of the latter through healthy general characteristics during the bath.
In other cases, the masters can be pets. They gobble up worms in the pond, in the use of infested larvae on the grass.
Dimensions trematodes vary according to its type – from a few millimeters to tens of centimeters. The body of a non-commercial flat, which reminds of the form of a worksheet or of the tongue. The head end of the parasite has several suction cups for fixing on the inside of the body of the host. These worms have an internal structure. - The organs of the system designed to ensure feeding and reproduction.
Note! The shell of eggs of trematodes on the one hand thickened, and the other has a cover. It is characteristic of the structure allows to diagnose the disease in humans.
The tapeworms (or cestodes) – the longest worms. In the human gut can be established if one of the 5 types of such worms. Their names indicate the dimensions, the origin of the larvae.
- a large tapeworm (is called difillobotrioz);
- the pig tapeworm (is called taeniasis);
- high tapeworm (is called beef tapeworm infection);
- a dwarf tapeworm (is called geminilepidos);
- Echinococcus (reason Echinococcusoz).
These parasites have a long body flattened, which consists of recurring segments. The front-end cestóides ends with "head", with features attached organs. When degelmintizatsija worms can get parts. Patients describe individual segments cestóides, as white education, similar in the figure.
In the interior of such worms extremely primitive: the majority of them do not have even the digestive system and the nervous weakly developed. This fact does not prevent it to spread widely, as well as the reproductive system presented by the authorities of each part of the body and provides high fertility.
Note! The most terrible representative cestóides believe wide têniaa, which can reach 25 m in length. A dwarf tapeworm – the smallest from this group of parasites. Its length does not exceed 5 cm.
The life expectancy of an individual can be large enough. So pork tapeworm, alone, occupies the large intestine is in the body of a person up to 20 years.
Owners of puppies in various stages of development, it becomes the breeding of cattle, insects inhabit bodies of water and molluscs. The infection occurs when the use is not enough boiled or roasted meat, fish. For surprise the different internal organs, can cause serious complications.
Are small worms-soil-traducitur helminths, living in 12 duodenal intestine of man. When infection by helminths destroy the wall of the intestine, its digestive enzymes.
The most common species:
- Necator americanus;
- Ancylostoma duodenale.
The hookworms are common, but many times, they can be found in the countries of North america and South America, India, China, Southern Europe.
The size of these worms do not exceeds 14 mm – Ancylostoma duodenale or 11 mm Necator americanus. The individuals separately-floors. After mating, they lay their eggs in the lumen of the intestine.
The larvae along with the fecal masses which fall in the environment where it occurs its maturity. It is on land within 1-2 weeks from eggs of new species, in the passage from a stage of non-invasive or non-contagious, and filariidae (invasive) larvae.
Filariidae, the larvae are able to keep yourself alive and ready for penetration in the human body in the period of 8 weeks. The greatest concentration of these worms in the soil is achieved in a hot and humid climate, the contamination of the environment with the feces.
Note! More frequent disease outbreaks in the territory of the mountain of development or mining. The infection occurs through the intact skin when walking barefoot.
Necator americanus or Ancylostoma of the New world is a different characteristic curve for the primary end has a pale pink colour. The parasite that causes the disease necatoroz.
Human intestinal worms Ancylostoma duodenale look like small, thin worms of white color. They cause the development in the hookworm ("out of egypt for the scab," or "a rash of silver").
By analyzing different types of worms, and you can't say that some of them actually represent a danger to man and the other does not deserve attention. When there is a suspicion of pest infestation should immediately consult the doctor and take the exam.